What is Type 1 Diabetes and Why Does it Occur?

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes, some time ago known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, it is a chronic situation in which the pancreas generates little or no insulin. Insulin is actually a hormone required to permit sugar (glucose) to go into cells to produce energy.

Dissimilar factors, such as genetics and some viruses, may make a payment to type 1 diabetes. Even though type 1 diabetes more often than not appears during childhood or adolescence, it can build up in adults.

In spite of active research, type 1 diabetes has no restored to health. Treatment focal point is on managing blood sugar levels with insulin, diet and lifestyle to avoid complications.


Type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms can come into view relatively abruptly and may comprise:

  • Increased thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Bed-wetting in children who previously didn’t wet the bed during the night
  • Extreme hunger
  • Unintended weight loss
  • Irritability and other mood changes
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Blurred vision


The precise cause of type 1 diabetes is still unknown. More often than not, the body’s own immune system which usually fights damaging bacteria and viruses mistakenly kills the insulin-producing islet, or islets of Langerhans cells in the pancreas. Additional possible causes hold:

  • Genetics
  • Exposure to viruses and other environmental factors

The role of insulin

Once a important number of islet cells are killed, you’ll create little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is produced from a gland located behind and below the stomach (pancreas).

  • The pancreas secretes insulin and glucagon hormone into the bloodstream.
  • Insulin circulates, permitting sugar to go into your cells.
  • Insulin decreases the quantity of sugar in your bloodstream.
  • As your blood sugar level falls, so does the secretion of insulin from your pancreas.

The role of glucose

Glucose is a sugar which is a major source of energy for the cells that build up muscles and additional tissues.

  • Glucose originates from two most important sources: food and your liver.
  • Sugar is absorbed into the bloodstream, where it goes into cells with the assist of insulin.
  • Liver is a storing organ and stores glucose as glycogen.
  • When your glucose levels drop, as when you haven’t consumed in a while, the liver break downhill the stored glycogen into glucose to maintain your glucose levels within a standard range.

In this type 1 diabetes, there’s rejection of insulin to let glucose into the cells, consequently sugar makes up in your bloodstream. This can source life-threatening complications.

Risk factors

Some well known hazard factors for type 1 diabetes contain:

  • Family history. Any person with a parent or sibling having type 1 diabetes has a somewhat enhanced risk of increasing the condition.
  • Genetics. The occurrence of confident genes indicates an increased hazard of having type 1 diabetes.
  • Geography. The occurrences of type 1 diabetes are inclined to boost as you travel away from the equator.
  • Age. Even though type 1 diabetes can come into view at any age, it appears at two perceptible peaks. The earliest peak happens in children between 4 and 7 years old, and the second is in children between 10 and 14 years old.


With the passage of time, type 1 diabetes complications can have an effect on main organs in your body, such as heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys. Keeping a normal blood sugar level can considerably decrease the threat of numerous complications.

Sooner or later, diabetes complications may be putting out of action or even life-threatening.

  • Heart and blood vessel disease. Diabetes spectacularly enhances your risk of a variety of cardiovascular issues, such as coronary artery disease with chest pain (angina), heart attack, stroke, narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis) and high blood pressure.
  • Nerve damage (neuropathy). Surplus sugar can damage the walls of the minute blood vessels (capillaries) that feed your nerves, particularly in the legs. This can become reason of tingling, numbness, burning or pain that usually initiates at the tips of the toes or fingers and slowly spreads upward. Inadequately controlled blood sugar could reason you to finally lose all sense of feeling in the affected limbs.

Injure to the nerves that have an effect on the gastrointestinal tract can cause harms with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. For men, erectile dysfunction may be a matter.

  • Kidney damage (nephropathy). The kidneys hold millions of minute blood vessel clusters that strain waste from your blood. Diabetes can injure this fragile filtering system. Harsh damage can show the method to kidney breakdown or irreversible end-stage kidney illness, which needs dialysis or a kidney transplant.
  • Eye damage. Diabetes can smash up the blood vessels of the retina (diabetic retinopathy), potentially cause blindness. Diabetes also boosts the hazard of other severe vision surroundings, like cataracts and glaucoma.
  • Foot damage. Nerve injures in the feet or poor blood run to the feet enhances the danger of a variety of foot complications. Left untreated, cuts and blisters can become solemn infections that may eventually need toe, foot or leg amputation.
  • Skin and mouth conditions. Diabetes may leave you more inclined to infections of the skin and mouth, containing bacterial and fungal infections. Gum sickness and dry mouth also are more probable.
  • Pregnancy complications. High blood sugar levels can be treacherous for both the mother and the baby. The hazard of miscarriage, stillbirth and birth defects enhances when diabetes isn’t well-controlled. For the mother, diabetes boosts the threat of diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic eye issues (retinopathy), pregnancy-induced far above the ground blood pressure and preeclampsia.


Till now there’s no known effective or best way to avoid type 1 diabetes. But researchers are working on averting the disease or additional destruction of the islet cells in people who are recently diagnosed.

Inquire your doctor if you might be entitled for one of these clinical tests, but cautiously weigh the threats and benefits of any cure available in a trial. Type 1 diabetes can be efficiently managed with the hold up of a good healthcare team.